Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 180.
This volume addresses the rapid decline of Arctic sea ice, placing recent sea ice decline in the context of past observations, climate model simulations and projections, and simple models of the climate sensitivity of sea ice. Highlights of the work presented here include An appraisal of the role played by wind forcing in driving the decline; A reconstruction of Arctic sea ice conditions prior to human observations, based on proxy data from sediments; A modeling approach for assessing the impact of sea ice decline on polar bears, used as input to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's decision to list the polar bear as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act; Contrasting studies on the existence of a "tipping point," beyond which Arctic sea ice decline will become (or has already become) irreversible, including an examination of the role of the small ice cap instability in global warming simulations; A significant summertime atmospheric response to sea ice reduction in an atmospheric general circulation model, suggesting a positive feedback and the potential for short-term climate prediction. The book will be of interest to researchers attempting to understand the recent behavior of Arctic sea ice, model projections of future sea ice loss, and the consequences of sea ice loss for the natural and human systems of the Arctic.
This book is the first comprehensive and methodologically rigorous analysis of earthquake occurrence. Models based on the theory of the stochastic multidimensional point processes are employed to approximate the earthquake occurrence pattern and evaluate
Seismoelectric coupling and its current and?potential future applications The seismoelectric method-the naturally-occurring?coupling of seismic waves to electromagnetic fields-can provide insight into important properties of porous media. With a variety of potential environmental and engineering uses, as well as larger scale?applications?such as earthquake detection and oil and gas exploration, it offers a number of advantages over conventional geophysical methods. Seismoelectric Exploration: Theory, Experiments, and Applications?explores the coupling between poroelastic and electromagnetic disturbances,?discussing?laboratory experiments, numerical?modeling techniques, recent theoretical developments, and field studies.? Volume highlights include: Physics of the seismoelectric effect at the microscale Governing equations describing coupled seismo-electromagnetic fields Examples of successful seismoelectric field experiments in different geological settings Current and potential applications of seismoelectric coupling Noise removal techniques for seismoelectric field measurements The American Geophysical Union promotes discovery in Earth and space science for the benefit of humanity. Its publications disseminate scientific knowledge and provide resources for researchers, students, and professionals.
Defending society against natural hazards is a high-stakes game of chance against nature, involving tough decisions. How should a developing nation allocate its budget between building schools for towns without ones or making existing schools earthquake-resistant? Does it make more sense to build levees to protect against floods, or to prevent development in the areas at risk? Would more lives be saved by making hospitals earthquake-resistant, or using the funds for patient care? What should scientists tell the public when as occurred in LAquila, Italy and Mammoth Lakes, California there is a real but small risk of an upcoming earthquake or volcanic eruption? Recent hurricanes, earthquakes, and tsunamis show that society often handles such choices poorly. Sometimes nature surprises us, when an earthquake, hurricane, or flood is bigger or has greater effects than expected from detailed hazard assessments. In other cases, nature outsmarts us, doing great damage despite expensive mitigation measures or causing us to divert limited resources to mitigate hazards that are overestimated. Much of the problem comes from the fact that formulating effective natural hazard policy involves combining science, economics, and risk analysis to analyze a problem and explore the costs and benefits of different options, in situations where the future is very uncertain. Because mitigation policies are typically chosen without such analysis, the results are often disappointing. This book uses general principles and case studies to explore how we can do better by taking an integrated view of natural hazards issues, rather than treating the relevant geoscience, engineering, economics, and policy formulation separately. Thought-provoking questions at the end of each chapter invite readers to confront the complex issues involved.Readership: Instructors, researchers, practitioners, and students interested in geoscience, engineering, economics, or policy issues relevant to natural hazards. Suitable for upper-level undergraduate or graduate courses.Additional resources can be found at: http://www.wiley.com/go/Stein/Playingagainstnature
Comprehensive and up-to-date information on Earth's most dominant year-to-year climate variation The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the Pacific Ocean has major worldwide social and economic consequences through its global scale effects on atmospheric and oceanic circulation, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, and other natural systems. Ongoing climate change is projected to significantly alter ENSO's dynamics and impacts. El Niño Southern Oscillation in a Changing Climate presents the latest theories, models, and observations, and explores the challenges of forecasting ENSO as the climate continues to change. Volume highlights include: Historical background on ENSO and its societal consequences Review of key El Niño (ENSO warm phase) and La Niña (ENSO cold phase) characteristics Mathematical description of the underlying physical processes that generate ENSO variations Conceptual framework for understanding ENSO changes on decadal and longer time scales, including the response to greenhouse gas forcing ENSO impacts on extreme ocean, weather, and climate events, including tropical cyclones, and how ENSO affects fisheries and the global carbon cycle Advances in modeling, paleo-reconstructions, and operational climate forecasting Future projections of ENSO and its impacts Factors influencing ENSO events, such as inter-basin climate interactions and volcanic eruptions The American Geophysical Union promotes discovery in Earth and space science for the benefit of humanity. Its publications disseminate scientific knowledge and provide resources for researchers, students, and professionals. Find out more about this book from this Q&A with the editors.
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Special Publications Series. Whether you are a science undergraduate or graduate student, post-doc or senior scientist, you need practical career development advice. Put Your Science to Work: The Take-Charge Career Guide for Scientists can help you explore all your options and develop dynamite strategies for landing the job of your dreams. Completely revised and updated from the best-selling To Boldly Go: A Practical Career Guide for Scientists, this second edition offers expert help from networking to negotiating a job offer. This is the book you need to start moving your career in the right direction.
Uncertainties are pervasive in natural hazards, and it is crucial to develop robust and meaningful approaches to characterize and communicate uncertainties to inform modeling efforts. In this monograph we provide a broad, cross-disciplinary overview of issues relating to uncertainties faced in natural hazard and risk assessment. We introduce some basic tenets of uncertainty analysis, discuss issues related to communication and decision support, and offer numerous examples of analyses and modeling approaches that vary by context and scope. Contributors include scientists from across the full breath of the natural hazard scientific community, from those in real-time analysis of natural hazards to those in the research community from academia and government. Key themes and highlights include: Substantial breadth and depth of analysis in terms of the types of natural hazards addressed, the disciplinary perspectives represented, and the number of studies included Targeted, application-centered analyses with a focus on development and use of modeling techniques to address various sources of uncertainty Emphasis on the impacts of climate change on natural hazard processes and outcomes Recommendations for cross-disciplinary and science transfer across natural hazard sciences This volume will be an excellent resource for those interested in the current work on uncertainty classification/quantification and will document common and emergent research themes to allow all to learn from each other and build a more connected but still diverse and ever growing community of scientists.
Read an interview with the editors to find out more:
The beginning of the new millennium has been particularly devastating in terms of natural disasters associated with tectonic plate boundaries, such as earthquakes in Sumatra, Chile, Japan, Tahiti, and Nepal; the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean tsunamis; and volcanoes in Indonesia, Chile, Iceland that have produced large quantities of ash causing major disruption to aviation. In total, half a million people were killed by such natural disasters. These recurring events have increased our awareness of the destructive power of natural hazards and the major risks associated with them. While we have come a long way in the search for understanding such natural phenomena, and although our knowledge of Earth dynamics and plate tectonics has improved enormously, there are still fundamental uncertainties in our understanding of natural hazards. Increased understanding is crucial to improve our capacity for hazard prediction and mitigation. Volume highlights include: Main concepts associated with tectonic plate boundaries Novel studies on boundary-related natural hazards Fundamental concepts that improve hazard prediction and mitigation Plate Boundaries and Natural Hazards will be a valuable resource for scientists and students in the fields of geophysics, geochemistry, plate tectonics, natural hazards, and climate science. Read an interview with the editors to find out more:
Society is increasingly affected by climate impacts, from prolonged water shortages to damaging coastal floods and wildfires. Scientists studying climate variations are eager to have their knowledge used in adaptive decision making. To achieve this, science and society must engage productively around complex management and policy challenges. For over 20 years, the science-society interface has been fertile ground for the Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) programs sponsored by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
Climate in Context describes what it takes to help scientists and stakeholders work together to "co-produce" climate science knowledge, policy, and action. This state-of-the art synthesis reflects on lessons learned by RISA programs, and provides a sober assessment of the challenges ahead. Through case studies from various US regions, this book provides lessons and guidance for organizations and individuals who want to work at the science-society interface on a range of climate challenges.
Deep Earth: Physics and Chemistry of the Lower Mantle and Core highlights recent advances and the latest views of the deep Earth from theoretical, experimental, and observational approaches and offers insight into future research directions on the deep Earth. In recent years, we have just reached a stage where we can perform measurements at the conditions of the center part of the Earth using state-of-the-art techniques, and many reports on the physical and chemical properties of the deep Earth have come out very recently. Novel theoretical models have been complementary to this breakthrough. These new inputs enable us to compare directly with results of precise geophysical and geochemical observations. This volume highlights the recent significant advancements in our understanding of the deep Earth that have occurred as a result, including contributions from mineral/rock physics, geophysics, and geochemistry that relate to the topics of: I. Thermal structure of the lower mantle and core II. Structure, anisotropy, and plasticity of deep Earth materials III. Physical properties of the deep interior IV. Chemistry and phase relations in the lower mantle and core V. Volatiles in the deep Earth The volume will be a valuable resource for researchers and students who study the Earth's interior. The topics of this volume are multidisciplinary, and therefore will be useful to students from a wide variety of fields in the Earth Sciences.
Global Vegetation Dynamics: Concepts and Applications in MC1 model describes the creation in the mid 1990s, architecture, uses, and limitations of the MC1 dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) that is being used by an increasing number of research groups around the world. The scientific foundation of most models is often poorly documented and difficult to access, and a centralized source of information for MC1, including the complete list of over eighty papers and reports with MC1 results will be useful to scientists and users who want to better understand the model and the output it generates. Global Vegetation Dynamics: Concepts and Applications in MC1 model will be a valuable resource for students and researchers in the fields of climate change science, conservation science, biogeochemistry and ecology, as well as for land managers looking for a better understanding of the projections of climate change impacts and of the tools that have been developed to produce them.
This textbook provides an overview of the origin and preservation of carbonate sedimentary rocks. The focus is on limestones and dolostones and the sediments from which they are derived. The approach is general and universal and draws heavily on fundamental discoveries, arresting interpretations, and keystone syntheses that have been developed over the last five decades. The book is designed as a teaching tool for upper level undergraduate classes, a fundamental reference for graduate and research students, and a scholarly source of information for practicing professionals whose expertise lies outside this specialty. The approach is rigorous, with every chapter being designed as a separate lecture on a specific topic that is encased within a larger scheme. The text is profusely illustrated with all colour diagrams and images of rocks, subsurface cores, thin sections, modern sediments, and underwater seascapes.
Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/james/carbonaterocks
Deep-water (below wave base) processes, although generally hidden from view, shape the sedimentary record of more than 65% of the Earth's surface, including large parts of ancient mountain belts. This book aims to inform advanced-level undergraduate and postgraduate students, and professional Earth scientists with interests in physical oceanography and hydrocarbon exploration and production, about many of the important physical aspects of deep-water (mainly deep-marine) systems. The authors consider transport and deposition in the deep sea, trace-fossil assemblages, and facies stacking patterns as an archive of the underlying controls on deposit architecture (e.g., seismicity, climate change, autocyclicity). Topics include modern and ancient deep-water sedimentary environments, tectonic settings, and how basinal and extra-basinal processes generate the typical characteristics of basin slopes, submarine canyons, contourite mounds and drifts, submarine fans, basin floors and abyssal plains.
Global Flood Hazard
Subject Category Winner, PROSE Awards 2019, Earth Science Selected from more than 500 entries, demonstrating exceptional scholarship and making a significant contribution to the field of study. PROSE Award Finalist 2019 Association of American Publishers Award for Professional and Scholarly Excellence Flooding is a costly natural disaster in terms of damage to land, property and infrastructure. This volume describes the latest tools and technologies for modeling, mapping, and predicting large-scale flood risk. It also presents readers with a range of remote sensing data sets successfully used for predicting and mapping floods at different scales. These resources can enable policymakers, public planners, and developers to plan for, and respond to, flooding with greater accuracy and effectiveness. Describes the latest large-scale modeling approaches, including hydrological models, 2-D flood inundation models, and global flood forecasting models Showcases new tools and technologies such as Aqueduct, a new web-based tool used for global assessment and projection of future flood risk under climate change scenarios Features case studies describing best-practice uses of modeling techniques, tools, and technologies Global Flood Hazard is an indispensable resource for researchers, consultants, practitioners, and policy makers dealing with flood risk, flood disaster response, flood management, and flood mitigation.
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Water Resources Monograph Series, Volume 19. What are the forms and processes characteristic of mountain rivers and how do we know them? Mountain Rivers Revisited, an expanded and updated version of the earlier volume Mountain Rivers, answers these questions and more. Here is the only comprehensive synthesis of current knowledge about mountain rivers available. While continuing to focus on physical process and form in mountain rivers, the text also addresses the influences of tectonics, climate, and land use on rivers, as well as water chemistry, hyporheic exchange, and riparian and aquatic ecology. With its numerous illustrations and references, hydrologists, geomorphologists, civil and environmental engineers, ecologists, resource planners, and their students will find this book an essential resource.
Ellen Wohl received her Ph.D. in geology in 1988 from the University of Arizona. Since then, she has worked primarily on mountain and bedrock rivers in diverse environments.
Pre-Earthquake signals are advanced warnings of a larger seismic event. A better understanding of these processes can help to predict the characteristics of the subsequent mainshock. Pre-Earthquake Processes: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Earthquake Prediction Studies presents the latest research on earthquake forecasting and prediction based on observations and physical modeling in China, Greece, Italy, France, Japan, Russia, Taiwan, and the United States. Volume highlights include: Describes the earthquake processes and the observed physical signals that precede them Explores the relationship between pre-earthquake activity and the characteristics of subsequent seismic events Encompasses physical, atmospheric, geochemical, and historical characteristics of pre-earthquakes Illustrates thermal infrared, seismo-ionospheric, and other satellite and ground-based pre-earthquake anomalies Applies these multidisciplinary data to earthquake forecasting and prediction Written for seismologists, geophysicists, geochemists, physical scientists, students and others, Pre-Earthquake Processes: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Earthquake Prediction Studies offers an essential resource for understanding the dynamics of pre-earthquake phenomena from an international and multidisciplinary perspective.
Science is built on trust. The assumption is that scientists will conduct their work with integrity, honesty, and a strict adherence to scientific protocols. Written by geoscientists for geoscientists, Scientific Integrity and Ethics in the Geosciences acquaints readers with the fundamental principles of scientific ethics and shows how they apply to everyday work in the classroom, laboratory, and field. Resources are provided throughout to help discuss and implement principles of scientific integrity and ethics. Volume highlights include: Examples of international and national codes and policies Exploration of the role of professional societies in scientific integrity and ethics References to scientific integrity and ethics in publications and research data Discussion of science integrity, ethics, and geoethics in education Extensive coverage of data applications Scientific Integrity and Ethics in the Geosciences is a valuable resource for students, faculty, instructors, and scientists in the geosciences and beyond. It is also useful for geoscientists working in industry, government, and policymaking.
Read an interview with the editors to find out more:
Elements move through Earth's critical zone along interconnected pathways that are strongly influenced by fluctuations in water and energy. The biogeochemical cycling of elements is inextricably linked to changes in climate and ecological disturbances, both natural and man-made. Biogeochemical Cycles: Ecological Drivers and Environmental Impact examines the influences and effects of biogeochemical elemental cycles in different ecosystems in the critical zone. Volume highlights include: Impact of global change on the biogeochemical functioning of diverse ecosystems Biological drivers of soil, rock, and mineral weathering Natural elemental sources for improving sustainability of ecosystems Links between natural ecosystems and managed agricultural systems Non-carbon elemental cycles affected by climate change Subsystems particularly vulnerable to global change The American Geophysical Union promotes discovery in Earth and space science for the benefit of humanity. Its publications disseminate scientific knowledge and provide resources for researchers, students, and professionals.
Book Review: http://www.elementsmagazine.org/archives/e16_6/e16_6_dep_bookreview.pdf
Explores soil as a nexus for water, chemicals, and biologically coupled nutrient cycling Soil is a narrow but critically important zone on Earth's surface. It is the interface for water and carbon recycling from above and part of the cycling of sediment and rock from below. Hydrogeology, Chemical Weathering, and Soil Formation places chemical weathering and soil formation in its geological, climatological, biological and hydrological perspective. Volume highlights include: The evolution of soils over 3.25 billion years Basic processes contributing to soil formation How chemical weathering and soil formation relate to water and energy fluxes The role of pedogenesis in geomorphology Relationships between climate soils and biota Soils, aeolian deposits, and crusts as geologic dating tools Impacts of land-use change on soils The American Geophysical Union promotes discovery in Earth and space science for the benefit of humanity. Its publications disseminate scientific knowledge and provide resources for researchers, students, and professionals. Find out more about this book from this Q&A with the Editors
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Computational Seismology and Geodynamics Series, Volume 8.
The American Geophysical Union (AGU) and the Editorial Board of Computational Seismology and Geodynamics (CSG) are happy to present the eighth volume of CSG. This volume contains 19 selected, translated, and reviewed articles of volumes 33 and 34 of Vychislitel'naya Seismologiya (VS), which deal with seismicity and seismic hazard, forward and inverse problems in seismology, geodynamics, geomagnetism, and self-organized criticality. The Russian annual journal Vychislitel'naya Seysmologiya was established in 1966 by Volodya Keilis-Borok, one of most eminent geophysicists of our time, as a media for publication of the best results in the theoretical, computational and mathematical seismology. For a short period of time the journal had become a prominent and known among mathematical geophysicists around the world. In 1970s the journal began to publish also articles related to non-linear dynamics and earthquake prediction and later to computational geodynamics. Many distinguished seismologists, geophysicists, and mathematicians, like G. Barenblatt, A. Dziewonski, I. Gelfand, H. Huppert, H. Kanamori, L. Kantorovich, L. Knopoff, F. Press, D. Turcotte, and others, published their research articles in VS. Twenty-one volumes of the journal were translated and published by Allerton Press, USA. Since 1994 AGU agreed to publish selected and peer-reviewed articles in volumes entitled CSG. Volume 1 (159 pp.) 1994 selected articles from Volumes 22 & 23
Volume 2 (188 pp.) 1994 selected articles from Volumes 24 & 25
Volume 3 (236 pp.) 1996 selected articles from Volumes 26 & 27
Volume 4 (200 pp.) 1999 selected articles from Volumes 28 & 29
Volume 5 (132 pp.) 2003 selected articles from Volume 30
Volume 6 (102 pp.) 2004 selected articles from Volume 31
Volume 7 (250 pp.) 2005 selected articles from Volume 32
Volume 8 (186 pp.) 2008 selected articles from Volumes 33 & 34
Natural disasters are occasional intense events that disturb Earth's surface, but their impact can be felt long after. Hazard events such as earthquakes, volcanos, drought, and storms can trigger a catastrophic reshaping of the landscape through the erosion, transport, and deposition of different kinds of materials. Geomorphology and Natural Hazards: Understanding Landscape Change for Disaster Mitigation is a graduate level textbook that explores the natural hazards resulting from landscape change and shows how an Earth science perspective can inform hazard mitigation and disaster impact reduction. Volume highlights include: Definitions of hazards, risks, and disasters Impact of different natural hazards on Earth surface processes Geomorphologic insights for hazard assessment and risk mitigation Models for predicting natural hazards How human activities have altered 'natural' hazards Complementarity of geomorphology and engineering to manage threats
Microstructural Geochronology Geochronology techniques enable the study of geological evolution and environmental change over time. This volume integrates two aspects of geochronology: one based on classical methods of orientation and spatial patterns, and the other on ratios of radioactive isotopes and their decay products. The chapters illustrate how material science techniques are taking this field to the atomic scale, enabling us to image the chemical and structural record of mineral lattice growth and deformation, and sometimes the patterns of radioactive parent and daughter atoms themselves, to generate a microstructural geochronology from some of the most resilient materials in the solar system. First compilation of research focusing on the crystal structure, material properties, and chemical zoning of the geochronology mineral archive down to nanoscale Novel comparisons of mineral time archives from different rocky planets and asteroids and their shock metamorphic histories Fundamentals on how to reconstruct and date radiogenic isotope distributions using atom probe tomography Microstructural Geochronology will be a valuable resource for graduate students, academics, and researchers in the fields of petrology, geochronology, mineralogy, geochemistry, planetary geology, astrobiology, chemistry, and material science. It will also appeal to philosophers and historians of science from other disciplines.
The Terrestrial Water Cycle: Natural and Human-Induced Changes is a comprehensive volume that investigates the changes in the terrestrial water cycle and the natural and anthropogenic factors that cause these changes. This volume brings together recent progress and achievements in large-scale hydrological observations and numerical simulations, specifically in areas such as in situ measurement network, satellite remote sensing and hydrological modeling. Our goal is to extend and deepen our understanding of the changes in the terrestrial water cycle and to shed light on the mechanisms of the changes and their consequences in water resources and human well-being in the context of global change. Volume highlights include: Overview of the changes in the terrestrial water cycle Human alterations of the terrestrial water cycle Recent advances in hydrological measurement and observation Integrated modeling of the terrestrial water cycle The Terrestrial Water Cycle: Natural and Human-Induced Changes will be a valuable resource for students and professionals in the fields of hydrology, water resources, climate change, ecology, geophysics, and geographic sciences. The book will also be attractive to those who have general interests in the terrestrial water cycle, including how and why the cycle changes.
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 189.
Climate Dynamics: Why Does Climate Vary? presents the major climate phenomena within the climate system to underscore the potency of dynamics in giving rise to climate change and variability. These phenomena include deep convection over the Indo-Pacific warm pool and its planetary-scale organization: the Madden-Julian Oscillation, the monsoons, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and the low-frequency variability of extratropical circulations. The volume also has a chapter focusing on the discussion of the causes of the recent melting of Arctic sea ice and a chapter devoted to the discussion of the causes of recent changes in the frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones. On each topic, the basic material of climate dynamics is covered to aid the understanding of the forefront research, making the volume accessible to a broad spectrum of readers. The volume highlights include Diabatic and nonlinear aspects of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation Causes of sea ice melting in the Arctic Impact of global warming on tropical cyclone activity Origins of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Causes of climate variability of Asian monsoons The volume will be of particular interest to graduate students and young researchers in atmospheric and oceanic sciences and related disciplines such as geology and geography. The book will also be a good read for those who have a more general interest in the Earth's climate and why it varies.