The book investigates the development of community gardens with self-built structures, which have existed as a shared public open space land use form in New York City's low-come neighborhoods like the South Bronx since the 1970s. These gardens have continued to be part of the urban landscape until today, despite conflicting land use interests, changing residents groups and contradictory city planning. Both community gardens and self-built structures are created in a participatory design and self-built effort by urban residents and are an expression of the individual gardeners' preferences, their cultural background and the decisions made by the managing residents' group in regards to the needs of their neighborhood. Ultimately community gardens with self-built structures are an expression of the people's will to commonly use this land for open and enclosed structures next to their homes in the city and need to be included in future urban planning.
This book analyses how multiple and hybrid `modernities' have been shaped in colonial and postcolonial India from the lens of sociology and anthropology, literature, media and cultural studies, law and political economy. It discusses the ideas that shaped these modernities as well as the lived experience and practice of these modernities. The two broad foci in this book are: (a) The dynamism of modern institutions in India, delineating the specific ways in which ideas of modernity have come to define these institutions and how institutional innovations have shaped modernities; and (b) perspectives on everyday practices of modernities and the cultural constituents of being modern. This book provides an enriching read by bringing together original papers from diverse disciplines and from renowned as well as upcoming scholars.
This book addresses current practices in customary law. It includes contributions by scholars from various legal systems (the USA, France, Israel, Canada etc.), who examine the current impacts of customary law on various aspects of private law, constitutional law, business law, international law and criminal law. In addition, the book expands the traditional concept of the rule of law, and argues that lawyers should not narrowly focus on statutory law, but should instead pay more attention to the impact of practices on "real legal life." It states that the observation of practices calls for a stronger focus on usage, customs and traditions in our legal systems - the idea being not to replace statutory law, but to complement it with customary observations.
This book presents the results of the most complete and updated assessment of cognitive resources of students in Latin America: the Study of Latin American Intelligence (SLATINT). During four years, top researchers of the region used a standardized set of cognitive measures to assess 4,000 students aged between 14 and 15 years from six countries: Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Chile, Colombia and Peru. The data collected and now analyzed in this volume is a first step to understand the human cognitive capital of the region, a crucial resource for any country today. Intelligence research has shown that the cognitive skills of a population are strongly associated with the school performance of its students and the development of a nation. This makes Intelligence Measurement and School Performance in Latin America a valuable tool both for Latin American researchers and authorities engaged in the improvement of each country's human resources and for psychologists, educators and other social scientists dedicated to the study of the impact of intelligence in the development of nations.
This unique guide is designed to facilitate the complex task of getting a paper published in an orthopaedics journal. The editors have enlisted expert orthopaedic surgeons from prestigious academic institutions, who share essential advice on how to set up and write on your research. The book addresses fraud issues, the correct use of English and editing, how to develop a sound research methodology, and editors' and reviewers' expectations, along with the main reasons for rejection. The future of the Impact Factor, altmetrics and Open Access journals are also discussed, and will be of special interest to young faculty who are starting their research career. The chapters are structured in a reproducible and easy-to-follow format. In addition, the editors offer tips and tricks for non-native speakers writing in English.As such, the book provides an accessible and comprehensive resource for all those seeking guidance on how to publish their research work in the field of orthopaedics.
This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license.
This authored monograph analyses the determining factors of societal evolution: the interaction between individuals and the resulting relationship, which the author calls the "Social Bond". The book aims at providing a better understanding of social dynamics and social interaction, and the author develops two models which provide interesting new insights. The target audience primarily comprises academics working in the field of social complexity and related fields, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students alike.
The main purpose of this book is to select and present the most essential information about hypertension. It aims to select all the more relevant data to guide the attitudes to prevent, diagnose, and treat hypertension. Hypertension accounts for more than 50% of deaths from stroke and ischemic heart disease worldwide. New blood pressure (BP) diagnostic thresholds for hypertension were released, which were set at 130/80 mmHg. As a consequence, millions of individuals in the world will be diagnosed as hypertensive, recognizing that they are at greater risk of presenting a CV event. Prevention and control of high BP will become the main focus for reducing the burden of CV disease, requiring a changing of cultural beliefs in some way similar to what happened in the last century with smoking. Strategies for prevention of the rising of BP with age, and the BP reduction in individuals already with high levels, are more complex than those related to smoking control. These strategies involve solid evidence to be implemented in populations. The extensive scientific literature dealing with hypertension and BP regulation is among the top dedicated to a single disease. The chapters and contents follow the clinical reasoning pathways. The characterization of the risks of high blood pressure is presented in the first chapter, discussing the evidence that led to changes in diagnostic thresholds and to the recommendations for maintaining BP within these limits in populations. Reasons for BP rising with age will follow, identifying the causes that must be fought to preventing the incidence of hypertension. Diagnosis of hypertension deserves a special chapter. The final chapter presents the fundamentals to select drug and non-drug therapies indicated in the prevention and controlling of high blood pressure.
This volume covers a state-of-the-art illustration of recent discoveries concerning obesity-related fatty liver diseases and liver cancer. The contents are extensive and comprehensive. It brings important topics in the field all together under one umbrella, from epidemiology and etiology, molecular pathogenesis, cellular biology, epigenetics, immunology, microbiology, animal models to therapeutic approaches and treatments. All the book contributors are leading experts in the field. It will appeal to researchers, clinicians and graduate students in obesity, fatty liver diseases, GI/Liver cancer field. It may also yield benefits for pharmaceutical companies with regard to drug discovery.
This thesis proposes machine learning methods for understanding scenes via behaviour analysis and online anomaly detection in video. The book introduces novel Bayesian topic models for detection of events that are different from typical activities and a novel framework for change point detection for identifying sudden behavioural changes.Behaviour analysis and anomaly detection are key components of intelligent vision systems. Anomaly detection can be considered from two perspectives: abnormal events can be defined as those that violate typical activities or as a sudden change in behaviour. Topic modelling and change-point detection methodologies, respectively, are employed to achieve these objectives.The thesis starts with the development of learning algorithms for a dynamic topic model, which extract topics that represent typical activities of a scene. These typical activities are used in a normality measure in anomaly detection decision-making. The book also proposes a novel anomaly localisation procedure. In the first topic model presented, a number of topics should be specified in advance. A novel dynamic nonparametric hierarchical Dirichlet process topic model is then developed where the number of topics is determined from data. Batch and online inference algorithms are developed.The latter part of the thesis considers behaviour analysis and anomaly detection within the change-point detection methodology. A novel general framework for change-point detection is introduced. Gaussian process time series data is considered. Statistical hypothesis tests are proposed for both offline and online data processing and multiple change point detection are proposed and theoretical properties of the tests are derived. The thesis is accompanied by open-source toolboxes that can be used by researchers and engineers.
This multifaceted book examines the free market reform of the Chinese healthcare system in the 1980s and the more collectivist or socialist counter-reforms that have been implemented since 2009 to remedy some of the problems introduced by marketization. The book is based on an ethnographical study in a Chinese county from 2011 to 2012, which investigated local people's experience of healthcare reforms and the various ways in which they have adapted their own behavior to the constraints and opportunities introduced by these reforms. It provides a vivid depiction of the morality and emotionality of people's experiences of the Chinese healthcare system and the myriad frustrations and sometimes desperation it induces not only among patients with significant health problems and their families, but also healthcare practitioners caught between their desire to do right by their patients and the penalties they personally incur if they do not adhere to institutionalized cost-saving measures. The people's experiences within China's health sector presented reflect many similar experiences in the wider Chinese society. The book is thus a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students interested in China's healthcare reforms and scholars concerned with issues of contemporary Chinese society.
This contributed volume encompasses contributions by eminent researchers in the field of geotechnical engineering. The chapters of this book are based on the keynote and sub-theme lectures delivered at the Indian Geotechnical Conference 2017. The book provides a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art research and practices in different domains of geotechnical engineering in the areas of soil dynamics, earth retaining structures, ground improvement, and geotechnical and geophysical investigations. It will serve as an ideal resource for academics, researchers, practicing professionals, and students alike.
This book informs and supports medical educators and clinic leaders regarding the key clinical and administrative components necessary to run an academic medical practice. From a group of expert faculty from the Society of General Internal Medicine (SGIM) with years of experience in managing academic medical practices, this manual offers comprehensive guidance to the clinic director regarding critical factors involved with running an academic medical practice including, but not limited to: compliance with Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requirements, clinic orientation and curricula implementation, clinic workflow challenges, billing, coding, and the Primary Care Exception Rule, productivity metrics and quality indicators, evaluation and feedback for trainees, faculty, and clinic staff, implementation of a Patient Centered Medical Home (PCMH), development of controlled substance prescribing policies, medical student involvement in resident clinics, and Veteran Affairs practices and non-traditional care settings. The scope of this book is sufficiently broad to be comprehensive and practical while still anticipating the further evolution of the academic medical practice in the years to come. Each chapter focuses on a particular aspect of clinic leadership and will offer real-world examples and management "pearls" for the clinic director. Chapters highlight common challenges and solutions and should be useful across disparate practice settings. This is an ideal resource for clinic directors, core faculty, and clinic leadership in academic outpatient medical practices, particularly those within the field of Internal Medicine, Primary Care, and related specialties.
This contributed volume contains 25 chapters from leading international scientists working on dengue and Zika viruses, who came together in Praia do Tofo in Mozambique to discuss the latest developments in the fields of epidemiology, pathogenesis, structural virology, immunology, antiviral drug discovery and development, vaccine efficacy, and mosquito control programs. The meeting venue offered an opportunity to discuss current research on these flaviviruses in an idyllic setting, and also to develop first-hand appreciation of the issues in infectious diseases facing developing countries and of the research gaps in Africa.
For readers, who should include basic and clinical researchers in the field and public health professionals, the chapters are organized to provide a comprehensive overview of the various topics in current dengue and Zika virus research.
A unique feature of the proceedings of this meeting is the inclusion of the discussions that took place following presentations. These have been transcribed and appended to the end of the relevant chapters, and they form the "salt in the soup" of this book.
This book introduces fundamental concepts of cyber resilience, drawing expertise from academia, industry, and government. Resilience is defined as the ability to recover from or easily adjust to shocks and stresses. Unlike the concept of security - which is often and incorrectly conflated with resilience -- resilience refers to the system's ability to recover or regenerate its performance after an unexpected impact produces a degradation in its performance. A clear understanding of distinction between security, risk and resilience is important for developing appropriate management of cyber threats. The book presents insightful discussion of the most current technical issues in cyber resilience, along with relevant methods and procedures. Practical aspects of current cyber resilience practices and techniques are described as they are now, and as they are likely to remain in the near term.The bulk of the material is presented in the book in a way that is easily accessible to non-specialists. Logical, consistent, and continuous discourse covering all key topics relevant to the field will be of use as teaching material as well as source of emerging scholarship in the field. A typical chapter provides introductory, tutorial-like material, detailed examples, in-depth elaboration of a selected technical approach, and a concise summary of key ideas.
This book is devoted to the issue of how we can learn to live together in the face of division and conflict. It is dedicated to the life and work of a remarkable human being, Dr Epimenidis Haidemenakis, scientist, statesman, visionary leader, President Emeritus of the International S.T.E.P.S. Foundation and founding father of The Olympiads of the Mind (OM). The monograph consists of a collection of papers presented at the 8th and 9th Olympiads of the Mind held in Washington, DC and Chania, Crete respectively. Distinguished international scholars, government and corporate representatives, leading researchers and academics from multiple disciplines and Nobel Laureates Leon Lederman (Physics, 1988), Martin Perl (Physics, 1995) and Yuan T. Lee (Chemistry, 1986) address a broad range of issues all with the aim of improving the human condition and achieving cooperation among the people of the world. The topics include the environment, sustainability and security; diversity and how to achieve integration and peace among people in a fractured world; the important role of brain research; how to overcome poverty and inequality; how to enhance creativity and improve education at all levels; and how new technologies and tools can be used for common benefit. The culmination of the book is a call to action, to join what one might call the "OM Movement"-bringing the best minds in the world together to create solutions to world issues so that we can all live together in harmony.
This unique text/reference provides an overview of crossbar-based interconnection networks, offering novel perspectives on these important components of high-performance, parallel-processor systems. A particular focus is placed on solutions to the blocking and scalability problems.Topics and features: introduces the fundamental concepts in interconnection networks in multi-processor systems, including issues of blocking, scalability, and crossbar networks; presents a classification of interconnection networks, and provides information on recognizing each of the networks; examines the challenges of blocking and scalability, and analyzes the different solutions that have been proposed; reviews a variety of different approaches to improve fault tolerance in multistage interconnection networks; discusses the scalable crossbar network, which is a non-blocking interconnection network that uses small-sized crossbar switches as switching elements.This invaluable work will be of great benefit to students, researchers and practitioners interested in computer networks, parallel processing and reliability engineering. The text is also essential reading for course modules on interconnection network design and reliability.
The book focuses on the integration of intelligent communication systems, control systems, and devices related to all aspects of engineering and sciences. It contains high-quality research papers presented at the 2nd international conference, ICICCD 2017, organized by the Department of Electronics, Instrumentation and Control Engineering of University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun on 15 and 16 April, 2017. The volume broadly covers recent advances of intelligent communication, intelligent control and intelligent devices. The work presented in this book is original research work, findings and practical development experiences of researchers, academicians, scientists and industrial practitioners.
This Brief provides an overview of different analytical methods and techniques for the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of Maillard Reactions and their reaction products in foods during processing and storage. Reliable methodology for the investigation of Maillard Reactions and their products are of utmost importance in food analysis: since Maillard Reactions can on the one hand be desirable and advantageous, influencing the colors, flavors and odors of food products, they can on the other hand also produce detrimental compounds afflicting the consumers' health (e.g. furfurals, furosine, or acrylamide).
This Brief introduces different analytical methods, which can be used to investigate and characterize Maillard Reactions and their products in foods, including for example capillary electrophoresis, high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection, UV-VIS spectrophotometry, fluorescence, electronic nose, gravimetric systems, and many more. The chapters exemplify how the analytical techniques can be applied for assessing and evaluating different Maillard Reaction products in foods. Readers will find basic information, as well as practical hints and guidelines for application in their own laboratory.
This book focuses on exploring the use of software fault prediction in building reliable and robust software systems. It is divided into the following chapters: Chapter 1 presents an introduction to the study and also introduces basic concepts of software fault prediction. Chapter 2 explains the generalized architecture of the software fault prediction process and discusses its various components. In turn, Chapter 3 provides detailed information on types of fault prediction models and discusses the latest literature on each model. Chapter 4 describes the software fault datasets and diverse issues concerning fault datasets when building fault prediction models. Chapter 5 presents a study evaluating different techniques on the basis of their performance for software fault prediction. Chapter 6 presents another study evaluating techniques for predicting the number of faults in the software modules. In closing, Chapter 7 provides a summary of the topics discussed.
The book will be of immense benefit to all readers who are interested in starting research in this area. In addition, it offers experienced researchers a valuable overview of the latest work in this area.
This book presents the anatomical and histological structure of the human larynx by demonstrating gross, histological, and electron microscopic photographs for all professionals interested in the human larynx. In the first part, sagittal, horizontal and coronal whole-organ serial sections of adult and newborn larynges are shown in color photographs. The whole-organ serial histological sections of the human larynx are very unique in the world. In the second part, the functional morphology of the human larynx is also shown in superb and breathtaking photographs. The specimens in this textbook have been assembled into a concise synopsis of laryngology commonly encountered in clinical practice. Functional Histoanatomy of the Human Larynx is intended to facilitate an in-depth understanding not only the structure of each component but also the special relationships between them, as well as the microstructure and functional morphology of the human larynx and of the vocal fold as a vibrating tissue. Lavishly illustrated and documented, this book offers a wealth of information on the functional morphology of the larynx.
The book speaks to the need for a regulatory framework with regards to space resource utilization. In doing so, significant elements of the subject matter have been explored, taking into account the different phases of a space mission and the perspectives of the various actors and participants in the space arena. The book tackles the subject matter from a number of angles. An analysis of the current national and international governance frameworks is performed, with regards to resource extraction and utilization in space. The view of established and emerging space nations is analyzed next, specifically with extraction and utilization in mind, and in light of the new United State (US) Commercial Space Launch Competitiveness Act (CSLCA) of 2015. A brief analysis of the various budgets allocated to space exploration is given.
This book argues that the appropriate application of the principles and practices of corporate governance to organisational portfolio, program, and projects (`3P') governance brings about highly engaged, knowledgeable, and effective governance practices, which in turn substantially improves business case success.The book addresses all three layers of portfolio, program, and project within an integrated governance framework, and it answers the fundamental questions everyone involved in 3P governance must address:What governance structures (processes, functions, roles, responsibilities) need to be in place to ensure optimal portfolio investment outcomes?How do I know our portfolios, as structured, will deliver expected benefits and value?What should senior management be doing, acting in their portfolio governance roles, to deliver great portfolio outcomes?The book introduces and describes a number of important frameworks and models, designed not just for their practical application, but also to be easily comprehended by senior executives not comfortable with traditional `project speak'.
This volume investigates the impact of energy issues on geostrategy. The crucial importance of energy and the fact that fossil fuels are not equally distributed among countries means that decisions are not only based on financial arguments, but also on the political impact. It can be said that "Energy is Politics". In three parts - 1) Energy Economy; 2) Finance; and 3) Geostrategy - academics and practitioners address both economic and political questions and present cases from several countries.This is the sixth volume in a series on energy organized by the Centre for Energy and Value Issues (CEVI). The previous volumes in the series were: Financial Aspects in Energy (2011), Energy Economics and Financial Markets (2012), Perspectives on Energy Risk (2014), Energy Technology and Valuation Issues (2015) and Energy and Finance (2016).
This book analyzes how and under what conditions collaborating corporations can effectively manage relationships with their suppliers in order to decrease the risk of suppliers' noncompliance with codes of conduct and standards. In so doing, it represents an important addition to the management literature on corporate social responsibility in global supply chains - which is highly topical at a time when companies are increasingly aware of the social and environmental aspects of global sourcing. After an opening systematic review of the literature on agency theory and supply chain management, it explores the rationale underlying collaboration among competitors, and the most critical aspects of such collaboration, in depth. Thanks to the book's use of real-life examples, readers will learn how agency theory can help improve relationship management and address the major issues in sustainable global sourcing.